Effective Practices That Support Transfer Students

 

​​​​​​​​​Transfer students represent a large segment of the U.S. higher education student population. In academic year 2020–​21 alone, over 2 million students transferred to a new institution. The transfer paths for these students vary—some transfer laterally across institutions, while others transfer from a community colleg​e to a bachelor’s degree-granting institution or take the reverse path. Some students may transfer once during their academic career, and others may transfer multiple times. 

While policy and practice efforts in recent years have sought to simplify the transfer process, many postsecondary institutions and systems continue to create or maintain barriers that impede students’ ability to transfer with ease. These barriers include credit loss, unclear transfer pathways, and lack of helpful transfer advising—all of which particularly impact students of color and low-income students, who are more likely to begin their college careers at community colleges and then transfer in order to complete their postsecondary degrees. The system’s obstacles to degree completion have only been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, taking the greatest toll on the upward tra​​​​​nsfer of Black and Indigenous students. In the 2020–21 academic year, compared with the year prior to the pandemic, transfer rates for Black and Native American students fell by 6.1 percent and 4.1 percent, respectively.

When transfer structures are defined by inefficiency and inequity, students end up with increasing levels of debt and spend more time without earning their degrees, widening existing racial and socioeconomic gaps in higher education. The results of these ineffective structures also leave the broader U.S. economy less able to fill workforce needs that demand postsecondary qualifications.

Seeing the need for addressing these issues, ACE convened the National Task Force on the Transfer and Award of Cr​edit in March 2020. The resulting ​​report outlined six effective practices, described below, that support students who pursue a postsecondary degree while transferring across institutions, systems, regions, and states.

Programs and Services Search Tool

The programs and services shared in this page’s tool are examples of these effective practices at work, illustrating how higher education stakeholders can ease postsecondary transfer for students. These examples highlight relevant research and approaches that demonstrate how ins​​titutions have adapted effective practices to increase the success of their transfer students.

Note: Programs designated with an asterisk (*) are program​s referred to in Reimagining Transfer for Student Success.​​

Program Name:
Institution:
Hinds Community College
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of community college credits to universities; associate to bachelor's completion; ability to stay close to home; location flexibility

​Hinds Community College has two plus two (2+2) agreements with Delta State University and the University of Southern Mississippi. These agreements allow students at any of the six Hinds Community College locations to seamlessly transition from community college to four-year institutions after the completion of an associate of art degree program. Participating students also receive a detailed plan of study in a bachelor’s program to help them stay on track toward their bachelor’s degree attainment. Hinds Community College honors 2+2 agreements with other institutions in multiple locations, as well, both within Mississippi and across state lines, so that students can complete their degrees from a variety of places within and close to the state of Mississippi.

Category:
Transfer and Articulation Agreements
Institution:
Holyoke Community College
Program Focus:
Affordability, Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Faculty support for students within and across institutions in the transfer process; curriculum oversight and advising for students

Holyoke Community College (HCC), one of the largest community college feeders to four-year institutions in Massachusetts, provides a comprehensive, all-in-one support center that assists students in the areas of advising, career planning and development, and transfer. Faculty are heavily involved in the transfer process at HCC. They have oversight over the curriculum and ensure that the course offerings are transferable to four-year institutions in Massachusetts. Faculty facilitate learning communities that provide cross-discipline courses to expose students to viable academic major options. Faculty are also assigned to student advisees and meet with liaisons from partnering four-year institutions to ensure students meet the criteria for successful transfer.

Category:
Faculty Engagement
Institution:
Blue Ridge Community College
Program Focus:
Academic and Career Exploration, Accelerated Degrees, Access, Affordability, Job Training
Program components that work for adult learners:
Degree attainment and smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another; student support

The Career and College Promise (CCP) Program at Blue Ridge Community College provides North Carolina high school students with three tailored pathways to complete a certificate and/or degree for free at an accelerated rate. The Cooperative Innovative High School Pathway program offers two programs, Early College and Career Academy. In Early College, high school students spend up to five years in the program, after which they graduate with a high school diploma and up to two years of transferable college credit or an associate degree. Career Academy offers academies in subjects such as art, automotive, and food service, as well as credit recovery courses for any student that may fall behind academically. Courses within the academies provide an immersive and hands-on experience to prepare students for life after graduation. The College Transfer Pathway allows junior and senior high school students to take transferable, tuition-free college courses while still enrolled in high school. The Career and Technical Education (CTE) Pathway offers various CTE pathways that eventually lead to certification and/or a diploma that is aligned with high school career clusters.

Benefits of the CCP Program include tuition-free classes, career exploration, training opportunities, and weighted credits that will assist students in obtaining a two-year or four-year degree. The CCP Program also provides opportunities for students to transfer credits between North Carolina community colleges and public four-year institutions, in addition to a variety of independent colleges.

Category:
Pathway Initiatives
Institution:
Utah System of Higher Education (USHE)
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Transfer of competency-based education credits from one institution to another

​The Utah System of Higher Education (USHE) engages in competency-based education (CBE) efforts established through state legislation. Required by this legislation, USHE institutions have multiple agreements in place to accept approved transfer and competency-based credits from regionally accredited institutions and private providers of competency-based education.

Category:
Course or Learning Equivalencies
Program Name:
Institution:
Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another; planning for students

​Oklahoma’s Course Transfer Module shares information on course equivalencies across many of the state’s institutions. The module shares these equivalencies in tables and a searchable database of courses that are transferable among Oklahoma public colleges and universities, as well as some private institutions. Students viewing the tables and modules within the database can see equivalent courses at each institution, organized according to academic discipline, allowing them to understand how courses will transfer and more effectively plan their degree pathway.

Category:
Course or Learning Equivalencies
Program Name:
Institution:
Ohio Department of Higher Education
Program Focus:
Completion, Flexibility, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another; planning for students; flexibility

​Through collaboration among public institutions in Ohio, the Credit When It’s Due (CWID) initiative helps students obtain an associate degree and beyond. CWID focuses on students with some college experience but no associate degree, helping them find a pathway to completion of a two-year degree. Students who are working toward a bachelor’s degree can also use reverse-transfer of credits to earn an associate degree. Students can also apply college credit earned at a previously-attended two-year Ohio college to an associate degree program. All of Ohio’s 23 community colleges and 13 universities participate in CWID.

Category:
Course or Learning Equivalencies
Institution:
Community College of Philadelphia
Program Focus:
Access, Affordability, Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another; planning for student and institution partnerships

Dual Admissions transfer partnerships allow students to earn their associate degree at the Community College of Philadelphia and then enroll with junior standing at one of 20 partnering four-year colleges and universities to pursue their bachelor’s degree. Support services and financial assistance, such as advising and scholarships, are included to help support students’ academic success. In addition, there is no cost to apply for the Dual Admissions partnership.

Category:
Transfer Partnerships
Institution:
Northern Virginia Community College
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another; planning for student and institution partnerships

​The Georgetown Preferred Consideration Program at Northern Virginia Community College (NOVA) provides students with an opportunity to continue their academic studies at Georgetown University upon completion of their first two years at the community college level. Through this program, participating NOVA campuses can recommend two or three effective candidates to continue their path toward a bachelor’s degree at Georgetown University. Recommended students must have a solid academic record and take required program courses that will allow them to easily transfer to a degree program at Georgetown. 

Category:
Transfer Partnerships
Program Name:
Institution:
SUNY Empire State College
Program Focus:
Completion, Flexibility, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Flexibility for students; focus on demonstrating knowledge versus retaking courses

​SUNY Empire State College’s Get Credit program enables students who demonstrate and verify their college-level learning the ability to earn and transfer in college credit. This learning can be acquired outside the classroom through previous life and work experience. Students at SUNY Empire can transfer credits in multiple ways, including through professional learning evaluations (PLE), individualized prior learning assessment (iPLA), and military training and occupations, as well as different standardized college-level examinations (e.g., CLEP, AP, DANTES).

To earn PLE credit, SUNY Empire has already evaluated many experiences, such as professional licensures, trainings, and apprenticeships. Students are able to know in advance how much academic credit they would earn by completing those experiences. Students can also earn credit via iPLA, which requires students to demonstrate college-level learning gained through various experiences, such as work, volunteer opportunities, hobbies, or military service, or independent study. Then, this experience is evaluated by SUNY Empire for college credit that can be transferred into the institution.

Another way that students receive credit is through the military. SUNY Empire takes credit from the Joint Services Transcript, which is a military transcript evaluated by the American Council on Education for college-level learning. The institution also takes credit attained at the Community College of the Air Force.

Category:
Course or Learning Equivalencies
Institution:
Louisiana State University Eunice
Program Focus:
Affordability, Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Faculty support for students within and across institutions in the transfer process; advising for students

Louisiana State University Eunice's (LSUE) transfer program allows students the opportunity to achieve their first 60 hours of credit toward a baccalaureate degree at a community college. Faculty advisors assist students with selecting courses in their associate degree programs that will function as prerequisites that will transfer into their prospective baccalaureate degree major. LSUE offers eight academic programs, some of which are available online, that have transfer guarantees to any Louisiana public four-year university.

Category:
Faculty Engagement
Institution:
Norfolk State University
Program Focus:
Access, Affordability, Completion, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Admission to a four-year institution; smooth transfer of credits; academic and financial advising

​Housed within the Office of Transfer Admissions & Services, the Norfolk State University (NSU) Passport Program provides capable high school students who do not meet the university’s admissions requirements the opportunity to take college-level courses at any institution in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS). Participating students receive monthly personalized academic advising with an NSU Passport advisor and a community college advisor. Students who complete the program with a minimum 2.0 GPA and 15 credit hours from a required course list will be considered for admission to NSU. The Passport Program provides students with advising sessions, workshops, social gatherings, access to NSU resources, and financial aid information sessions to ease the transition to NSU upon program completion.

Category:
Pathway Initiatives
Institution:
NC Community Colleges
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of community college credits to public universities; ability for students to appeal credits; associate to bachelor's completion

The North Carolina Comprehensive Articulation Agreement (CAA) is a statewide agreement regarding transfer of credits between North Carolina’s community colleges and public universities. This agreement aims to facilitate smooth transfer of students between the state’s public institutions. The CAA guarantees transfer students from North Carolina community colleges admission to North Carolina public universities, and allows students with North Carolina associate degrees to transfer to the state’s four-year public University of North Carolina system universities with junior status.


Category:
Transfer and Articulation Agreements
Program Name:
Institution:
Ohio Department of Higher Education
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another; planning for students; staying within same state/system

Ohio Transfer 36 is the 36–40 credit hours of general education requirements that are required for associate of arts (AA), associate of science (AS), and baccalaureate degrees across public institutions in the state. Institutions receiving transfer students who have completed the Ohio Transfer 36 requirements must accept those credits as a block. This allows for groups of students’ credits to automatically and seamlessly transfer from one Ohio public institution to another.

Category:
State- or System-Level Transfer Blocks
Institution:
Pennsylvania's State System of Higher Education (PASSHE)
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another; planning for students; staying within same state/system; retroactive awarding of associate degree

​Students at institutions that are part of the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) can transfer courses across PASSHE universities. Also, if students are transferring from a Pennsylvania community college, Pennsylvania’s community colleges and PASSHE universities have a statewide agreement that allows for reverse transfer of credits, giving former community college students the opportunity to obtain a retroactive associate degree from those community colleges with credits they’ve already earned. Additionally, PASSHE faculty and staff will work with students who have earned credits from a community college or other institution outside of the PASSHE system to help students receive maximum credit for their coursework; they will also work with these students to craft an advising plan to ensure timely degree completion.

Category:
State- or System-Level Transfer Blocks
Program Name:
Institution:
Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another; planning for students; staying within same state/system

​The Field of Study Curriculum (FOSC), a set of lower-division postsecondary courses taken at public institutions of higher education in Texas which then can seamlessly transfer and be applied to other public degree programs in the state, is included within the Texas Transfer Framework. Per this framework, if a student completes all the courses in a Texas FOSC and transfers to another public college or university in Texas, the FOSC courses transfer as one block and are automatically applied to the student’s major.

Category:
State- or System-Level Transfer Blocks
Program Name:
Institution:
Rowan College of South Jersey
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another

Via a partnership with Rowan University, students at Rowan College of South Jersey, a community college, can pursue degrees in business administration, exercise science, inclusive education, law and justice, nursing, psychology, and radio/television/film as 3+1 programs. Through these programs, students complete their first three years at Rowan College and then transfer in their last year to complete a bachelor’s at Rowan University. This allows students to still graduate with a bachelor’s degree, while also saving money on tuition and fees. Course curricula are aligned between the two institutions so that all credits earned by 3+1 students transfer seamlessly between the two institutions.

Category:
Transfer and Articulation Agreements
Institution:
Everett Community College
Program Focus:
Affordability, Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Faculty support for students within and across institutions in the transfer process; advising for students

Everett Community College provides opportunities for students to engage with program faculty advisors to stay on track for associate degree completion and to prepare to transfer for specific bachelor’s degree majors. Faculty advisors help students create quarter-by-quarter plans for degree or certificate completion, as well as talk about major and career possibilities, select classes, and update degree plans.

Category:
Faculty Engagement
Program Name:
Institution:
Michigan State University
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another; planning for students

​Michigan State University’s Transfer MSU module allows students to search for courses at other two-year and four-year institutions with MSU equivalencies. In the module, students can select the state or country and institution from which they have course credit, then search by the course subject area and course number to find an equivalent class at MSU. This allows students to understand which courses will transfer from another institution to MSU, allowing them to plan their degree pathway.

Category:
Course or Learning Equivalencies
Institution:
Howard University
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another

​Through several articulation agreements, Howard University accepts transfer credits for certain degree programs from several institutions across the country. Since many of the institutions are community colleges, this eases the transfer process for students who are at a public two-year institution and would like to transfer their credits to complete their bachelor’s degree at a four-year, historically Black university. Once Howard receives and evaluates a student’s official transcripts and exam results, credits are processed by Transfer Services staff at the university.

Category:
Transfer and Articulation Agreements
Program Name:
Institution:
Transferology
Program Focus:
Completion, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another; planning for students

Transferology is a nationwide network of institutions with tools that students can use to explore higher education transfer options. This allows students to plan their degree pathway, in turn saving time and money by not taking unnecessary classes after transferring. Students can use the Transferology online tool, adding their courses, exams, and/or military learning experiences to see how many colleges and universities in the Transferology network have matching classes that may be accepted as transfer credit. The online tool’s “Find a Replacement Course” feature can be used to learn which options exist for summer courses students may take at another institution and transfer back to their current college or university.

Category:
Course or Learning Equivalencies
Institution:
State Council of Higher Education for Virginia
Program Focus:
Affordability, Completion, Persistence
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another; planning for student and institution partnerships

​In 2007, the Two-Year College Transfer Grant Program (CTG) was passed into law in Virginia to reduce overall costs for degree completion at the baccalaureate level. Under this program, students complete their associate degree at a Virginia public two-year college and then, if they meet eligibility requirements, transfer to a participating Virginia four-year college or university. There are 15 participating public institutions and 27 private, nonprofit institutions. Qualifying students may also receive a monetary CTG award.

Category:
Transfer Partnerships
Program Name:
Institution:
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE)
Program Focus:
Completion, Flexibility, Persistence, Retention
Program components that work for adult learners:
Smooth transfer of credits from one institution to another across states in the region; planning for students

WICHE Interstate Passport is the only nationwide network of public and private two- and four-year colleges and universities focused on transferring lower-division general education classes as block transfers. Faculty from the institutions that participate in the passport program have developed the program’s framework, which includes learning outcomes for students and criteria used to assess whether or not students have met the learning outcomes.

Each institution decides how to enact the Passport Learning Outcomes (PLO) and criteria, including which classes students must take, the sequence of those courses, how to assess non-course-based learning experiences students may have, and the achievement levels students must meet. These requirements are known as the institution’s Passport Block. Institutions that are part of the WICHE Interstate Passport are required to accept any transfer student’s Passport Block, regardless of how different it may be from their own. This allows students to seamlessly and efficiently transfer blocks of lower-division general education knowledge that can then become transfer credits (the number of which is to be determined by the receiving institution) toward a degree program.

ACE Learning Evaluations uses the 63 Passport Learning Outcomes as a framework in evaluating and recommending college credit for training, certifications, and exams.

Category:
Multi-state Transfer Initiatives
About Practice Types

 Transfer and Articulation Agreements

Transfer and articulation agreements are formal educational partnerships among colleges and universities that ensure the seamless transferability of academic credits for transfer students. Some articulation agreements are implemented statewide, while other agreements are established outside of statewide systems as partnerships between individual institutions (e.g., between a community college and a local four-year institution). Traditionally, the most common pattern of transfer has been the 2+2 agreement, under which the initial two years of coursework are completed at a community college and the additional two years are fulfilled at a four-year institution. 

New transfer patterns, such as 3+1 and 1+3, provide flexibility to further support transfer students in their pursuit of a baccalaureate degree. Much like 2+2 transfer agreements, 3+1 and 1+3 agreements have a foundational premise of coursework being completed at the community college level (i.e., three years for 3+1 or one year for 1+3) and the remainder of coursework being completed at a four-year, baccalaureate-granting institution.

Transfer and articulation agreements ensure that transfer students and participating institutions understand which academic courses will and will not transfer. With such an agreement, transfer students are more likely to make better-informed course choices, which can save both time to degree and money.   

 Course or Learning Equivalencies

​Course or learning equivalencies are expert-led learning outcome assessment initiatives (McCambly and Bragg 2016) that determine how a course offered by one institution relates to a course offered at another college or university and how students can retain the associated academic credit and apply it toward their degree. Using equivalencies to intentionally align curricula with learning outcomes can enhance transfer practices and policies (Bragg 2021). Some of the most common elements evaluated for course or learning equivalencies are academic credits, course description, level of instruction, prerequisites, grade scale and grade earned, and learning outcomes.

Credit for prior learning (CPL) is another way for higher education to support credit for transfer through validation, advancement, and recognition that all learning—workplace, military, community, and college—can be connected to optimize human capital for social mobility and economic competitiveness. CPL provides strategies for both institutions and transfer students to determine how prior learning and experience can translate to college-level equivalency to grant academic credit (Taylor and Kilgore 2021).

The approach and measures used to determine course or learning equivalency vary by institution, state, and region. Course equivalencies can be unilateral (a course viewed as equivalent by the receiving institution) or bilateral (meaning that both the sending and receiving institutions recognize and accept each other’s courses as equivalent). 

However, faculty, academic affairs, disciplinary experts, and staff often determine whether or not a course or learning is equivalent. CPL remains a high-touch and nuanced human-centered exercise. Whether at the point of evaluating a workplace training course, documenting that learning for sharing, or having it reviewed on a college campus, the processes that support credit for prior learning underleverage current technology (Kratzer, Soares, and Spires 2021).

Online tools such as the ACE Military Guide and Transferology have been created to help colleges, universities, and students understand transfer options and how courses and experiences transfer. ​

 State- or System-Level Transfer Blocks

​A transfer block is a cluster of general education courses deemed valid to be applied toward associate and baccalaureate degree requirements within a state or system. State- or system-level involvement can ensure that transfer students obtain and maintain course credit throughout their transition from institution to institution, regardless of geographic location. Students who have effectively fulfilled a transfer block can often transfer into a four-year institution with junior-year standing. The overarching goal of state- ​or system-level transfer blocks is to minimize course and credit transfer confusion and assist students in successfully completing their baccalaureate degrees without loss of credit (Bragg 2021).

 Multi-state Transfer Initiatives

Multi-state transfer initiatives occur when colleges and universities work together to determine how lower-division general education courses and credits match to competencies found in course learning objectives. These decisions strive to be competency based, where the standard of transfer is anchored in the learning achieved by students rather than the cre​dits obtained. This approach benefits transfer students by removing barriers to degree completion and providing an infrastructure that supports articulations and transfers across states and regions.

 Faculty Engagement

Faculty engagement and involvement are integral to remedying some of the common barriers associated with transfer outcomes. These barriers include the support and acceptance of academic credits for students and their institutions. Students who work closely with faculty at both the transfer-sending and the transfer-receiving institutions have the advantage of receiving support in academic and career pursuits, in addition to increased guidance and validation (Wang et al. 2021). Faculty involvement throughout the various stages of transfer creates opportunities for solidifying course equivalencies, participating in transfer recruitment, and debunking myths surrounding transfer to forge transfer-friendly environments.

An example of faculty engagement can be found within ACE’s credit for prior learning (CPL) evaluation process. Faculty from various academic disciplines and institutions serve as evaluators who review and assess military occupations and training as well as training and exams to recommend what may be eligible for college credit and academic transfer.

 Transfer Partnerships

Transfer partnerships are collaborative relationships between two or more two-year and four-year institutions that improve degree completion rates for community college students seeking a baccalaureate degree, in addition to addressing workforce needs among local communities.

These relationships center on students receiving adequate support, preparation, and investment to be transfer ready, using multiple methods, such as aligning curricula across institutions and guaranteed admissions. When two-year and four-year institutions establish authentic partnerships, they reduce some of the pitfalls often experienced by transfer students, such as losing academic credit and incurring additional debt. Clarifying and articulating the transfer process between two-year and four-year colleges and universities can reduce costs, eliminate the need for students to repeat courses, and support student retention (Eddy 2010).

 Pathway Initiatives

Pathway initiatives are guided pathways implemented by institutions and systems that proactively support both high school and transfer students on their path to earning a four-year degree through credit attainment and student-centered support. Students who participate in pathway programs are able to take community college-level courses and/or earn an associate degree that will successfully transfer to a university of their choice. Beyond easing student transfer between partnering colleges and universities, pathway initiatives allow students to receive ongoing counseling, programming, and student support services. Pathway initiatives save both money and time and ensure that earned academic credits do not go to waste for transfer students.

The Aspen Institute, in partnership with the Community College Research Center at Columbia University's Teachers College, pu​blished The Transfer Play​book, which highlights essential strategies for having effective pathway initiatives. These strategies include creating clear programmatic pathways aligned with quality instruction and providing me​aningful academic experiences to prepare community college students for the rigor of four-year institutions. The Transfer Playbook also details institutions with transfer student success rates that have implemented and cultivated transfer pathway initiatives.​

Methodology

​The effective practices and programs to support transfer students featured in this online tool were identified and assessed using ACE’s report Reimagining Transfer for​​​​ Student Success: The National Task Force on the Transfer and Award of Credit, literature reviews, and recommendations from subject matter experts. Details for each highlighted practice and program were extracted from their respective organization or instutition websites. Some descriptions were also determined through conversations with staff at the featured institutions.

References

​Explore the full list of references used in creating this tool below.

 Explore References

​​Bragg, Debra D. 2021. “A Portrait of Student Transfer and the Awarding of Credit Toward Degree Completion." In Reimagining Transfer for Student Success: The National Task Force on the Transfer and Award of Credit, by American Council on Education, 6. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Eddy, Pamela L. 2010. Partnerships and Collaborations in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 26, no. 2. San Francisco: Wiley. 

Fink, John. 2021. “Designing a Transfer Student Experience to Support Persistence and Completion." In Reimagining Transfer for Student Success: The National Task Force on the Transfer and Award of Credit, by American Council on Education, 6. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Handel, Stephen  J., and Ronald A. Williams. 2012. The Promise of the Transfer Pathway: Opportunity and Challenge for Community College Students Seeking the Baccalaureate Degree. New York: College Board Advocacy & Policy Center.

Kratzer, Dallas, Louis Soares, and Michele Spires. 2021. Recognition of Learning Across Military & Corporate Settings: How ACE Blends Standard Processes, Disciplinary Expertise, and Context to Ensure Quality. PLA Landscape Analysis Brief. Boulder, CO: Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education.

McCambly, Heather N., and Debra D. Bragg. 2016. Reforming Transfer to Meet the Needs of "Post-Traditional" ​Transfer Students: Insights from Credit When It's Due. Champaign, IL: Office of Community College Research and Leadership, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Taylor, Steven C., and Wendy Kilgore. 2021. “Enabling the Transfer and Award of Academic Credit for Prior Learning." In Reimagining Transfer for Student Success: The National Task Force on the Transfer and Award of Credit, by American Council on Education, 7–8. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.​

Wang, Xueli, Seo Young Lee, Brett Ranon Nachman, and Xiwei Zhu. 2021. “It Matters Long Before: How Early Exposure to Faculty and Advisors at Baccalaureate Institutions Relates to Upward Transfer." Educational Researcher 50, no. 2 (March): 105–114.

 


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